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The other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by Brno Reservoir.Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti (to armour or to fortify) or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples and later Slavic peoples (this theory would make it cognate with other Celtic words for hill, such as the Welsh word bryn).After the end of the Thirty Years' War (1648), Brno retained its status as the sole capital.This was later confirmed by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II in 1782, and again in 1849 by the Moravian constitution. Peter and Paul on Petrov hill • Left, row 2: Veveří Castle • Left, row 3: High-rise buildings • Left, row 4: Brno-Tuřany International Airport • Middle, row 1: Špilberk Castle • Middle, row 2: Ignis Brunensis international firework competition • Middle, row 3: Park Lužánky • Middle, row 4: Masaryk Circuit, the Brno racing circuit • Right, row 1: Church of St.James • Right, row 2: A ship on Brno Reservoir • Right, row 3: Mahen Theatre, a part of the National Theatre in Brno • Right, row 4: A part of the Brno Exhibition Centre Bohunice, Bosonohy, Bystrc, Centre, Černovice, Chrlice, Ivanovice, Jehnice, Jundrov, Kníničky, Kohoutovice, Komín, Královo Pole, Lesná, Líšeň, Maloměřice and Obřany, Medlánky, North, Nový Lískovec, Ořešín, Řečkovice and Mokrá Hora, Slatina, South, Starý Lískovec, Tuřany, Útěchov, Vinohrady, Žabovřesky, Žebětín, Židenice) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.The city is also a significant administrative centre.It is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman, The most visited sights of the city include the Špilberk castle and fortress and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul on Petrov hill, two medieval buildings that dominate the cityscape and are often depicted as its traditional symbols.
In 1921 Brno became the capital of the Land of Moravia (Czech: země Moravská); before that it was the capital of the Margraviate of Moravia.
In the 18th century Brno was besieged by Prussians in 1742 under the leadership of Frederick the Great, the siege was ultimately unsuccessful.
In 1777 the bishopric of Brno was established; Mathias Franz Graf von Chorinsky Freiherr von Ledske was the first Bishop.
In the 15th century Brno was besieged in 1428 and again in 1430 by the Hussites during the Hussite Wars. In 1641, in the midst of the Thirty Years' War, the Holy Roman Emperor and Margrave of Moravia Ferdinand III commanded permanent relocation of the diet, court, and the land tables from Olomouc to Brno, as Olomouc's Collegium Nordicum made it one of the primary targets of Swedish armies.
Meanwhile, Brno, as the only Moravian city which under the leadership of Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches managed to defend itself from the Swedes under General Lennart Torstenson, served as the sole capital of the state (Margraviate of Moravia).